Oil paints have been there long ago and continue to grow in popularity because of their quality and versatility. Classics like Mona Lisa were oil-painted.
Oil painting on canvas can be tricky, but it doesn’t have to. This article provides you with everything you need to know and more on how to oil paint on canvas.
Keep reading to find out more about oil painting!
Understanding the ‘Fat Over Lean’ Rule in Depth
The “fat over lean” principle is one of the most crucial guidelines to follow when working with oil paints. Essentially, it means that each subsequent layer of paint applied to the canvas should contain more oil (be “fatter”) than the previous one.
This is because oil paint dries through a process of oxidation, and thicker, oilier layers take longer to dry than thinner, leaner ones. If a fatter layer is applied over a leaner one, the top layer may dry first, leading to cracking or crazing. It is thus advised to start with thinner paint layers and gradually increase the oil content as you add more layers.
Choosing the Right Oil Paints for Your Artwork
Selecting the appropriate oil paints can significantly influence your artwork’s outcome. When buying oil paints, consider the quality, color range, permanence (lightfastness), consistency, and drying rate. While professional-grade paints are more expensive, they offer higher pigment concentration and a wider color range.
Student-grade paints are affordable but may have lower pigment concentrations and include fillers. Some common oil paint brands include Winsor & Newton, Rembrandt, Gamblin, and Old Holland.
Color Mixing Techniques for Oil Painting
Mastering color mixing is essential for creating a wide range of hues and tones with a limited palette. Start by understanding the color wheel, which will help you learn about primary, secondary, and tertiary colors, and how they interact.
Learn to create neutral tones by mixing complementary colors, which are opposite each other on the color wheel. Experiment with different amounts of paint to understand how colors change with various mixtures. Also, keep in mind that some pigments are naturally transparent or opaque, affecting the final result when mixed.
Maintaining and Cleaning Your Brushes
Brush care is vital in oil painting for both the longevity of your brushes and the quality of your work. After each painting session, wipe off the excess paint from your brushes using a rag, then wash them with a brush cleaner or mild soap. Rinse thoroughly, reshape the bristles, and allow them to dry horizontally. Never leave brushes standing bristle-end down in a jar of water or solvent, as this can distort their shape.
Common Mistakes and How to Avoid Them in Oil Painting
Some common mistakes in oil painting include not using enough paint, not waiting for layers to dry, and not adhering to the “fat over lean” rule. To avoid these, practice patience and allow yourself to experiment and learn from errors.
Another common mistake is using black paint to darken colors, which can result in muddy hues. Instead, mix complementary colors to achieve darker tones. Remember to clean your brushes properly between colors to avoid unintentional color mixing.
Exploring Various Oil Painting Techniques
There are several oil painting techniques that you can explore, each giving a different effect. Glazing is a technique where thin, transparent layers of oil paint are applied over a dry, lighter layer. This results in a beautiful, luminous effect.
Another technique is impasto, where thick, textured strokes of paint are applied to create a three-dimensional appearance. Dry brushing involves using a brush with very little paint and no solvent, creating a scratchy, broken color effect.
Guide to Choosing the Right Canvas for Your Oil Painting
The canvas you choose for your oil painting plays a crucial role in your artwork’s longevity and overall appearance. Pre-stretched and pre-primed canvases are popular due to their convenience, but if you prefer a specific canvas texture or want to save money, stretching and priming your own canvas could be a viable option. A cotton duck canvas is economical and suitable for beginners, while a linen canvas is more expensive but
offers a smoother, more durable surface that many professional artists prefer. Whichever canvas type you choose, it’s important to apply a suitable primer, such as gesso, to protect the canvas from the oil paint’s acidic properties and to provide a suitable surface for the paint to adhere to.
Understanding the Impact of Light and Shadow in Oil Paintings
Light and shadow play a vital role in creating a sense of depth and volume in your artwork. In oil painting, it’s important to observe how light interacts with your subject matter, casting highlights and shadows that define the object’s shape.
Consider the direction of light in your composition and how it shapes the subject and environment. Be mindful of the value scale – the range from darkest to lightest tones. A common practice is to establish your darkest darks and lightest lights early in the painting process, and fill in the mid-tones afterwards.
Creating Texture and Depth in Your Oil Paintings
Creating texture and depth in oil paintings is largely about layering and brushwork. Using the impasto technique, where thick layers of paint are applied, can create a three-dimensional effect on the canvas. Palette knives can also be used to apply paint in thick layers, contributing to a rich texture.
Creating depth involves understanding color theory and perspective. Cooler colors (blues and greens) tend to recede in an image, while warmer colors (reds, oranges, yellows) appear to come forward. Proper use of perspective rules can also add depth to a scene, making objects appear three-dimensional and giving the illusion of distance.
Tips for Working With Oil Paints Safely
While oil painting is a fulfilling activity, it’s crucial to remember the safety guidelines. Oil paints and solvents can be harmful if they come into contact with skin or if their fumes are inhaled over a long period.
Therefore, it’s advised to work in a well-ventilated area, wear gloves when handling paints and solvents, and avoid eating or drinking near your painting area. Dispose of rags soaked in oil or solvents properly as they can be a fire hazard. Finally, keep your painting materials out of reach of children and pets.
The Role of Mediums in Oil Painting
In oil painting, mediums are substances added to the paint to alter its characteristics, like drying time, texture, and consistency. Some mediums, like linseed oil, can increase the paint’s flow and gloss, while others, like turpentine or mineral spirits, can thin the paint and speed up its drying time. It’s important to understand the properties of various mediums and how they interact with oil paints to fully control your painting’s outcome.
Inspiration: Examining Famous Oil Paintings and Artists
To improve your oil painting skills, it can be beneficial to study the works of famous oil painters and try to understand the techniques they used. Look at the works of artists like Vincent Van Gogh, Claude Monet, Rembrandt, and others.
Notice how they’ve used colors, created texture, handled light and shadow, and composed their paintings. Consider visiting art galleries or museums to see original oil paintings, or find high-quality images online. Remember, it’s about gaining inspiration and learning, not copying.
How to Store and Preserve Your Oil Paintings
Once you’ve completed an oil painting, it’s important to properly store and preserve it to maintain its vibrancy and integrity. Oil paintings need to dry out completely before they can be stored or displayed, which can take several months.
Once dry, they should be kept in a cool, dry place away from direct sunlight, which can cause colors to fade. Never stack paintings face-to-face or back-to-back; instead, store them separated by a layer of non-acidic material. Periodically check your paintings for signs of mold or discoloration.
How to Correct Mistakes in Oil Painting
Correcting mistakes in oil painting is a skill that every artist must learn. The forgiving nature of oil paint allows for changes and corrections at almost any stage of the painting process. If the paint is still wet, you can wipe off the area with a clean, soft rag or scrape it off using a palette knife.
If the paint has dried, you can paint over the mistake with a layer of opaque paint or use a technique called ‘glazing’ to adjust colors without obscuring the underlying layers. It’s important to let the painting dry thoroughly before making any corrections to avoid damaging the painting.
Introduction to Glazing Techniques in Oil Painting
Glazing in oil painting is a technique where a thin, transparent layer of paint is applied over a dry, lighter layer. This can create luminous, vibrant colors and can be used to adjust the color and tone of the underlying paint.
Glazing is done using a glazing medium, which is usually a mix of an oil like linseed or walnut oil, and a solvent like turpentine. The paint used for glazing should be transparent or semi-transparent to allow the light to pass through it and reflect off the lower layers.
Understanding the Drying Process of Oil Paints
The drying process of oil paint is unique in that it doesn’t dry by evaporation, like watercolors or acrylics, but rather by oxidation, a chemical reaction with the air. This process is slow, and it can take from a few days to several months for a layer of oil paint to dry thoroughly, depending on the thickness of the paint and the oil content.
Paints with higher oil content (fatter paints) take longer to dry than paints thinned with solvents (lean paints). This slow drying time allows for changes to be made to the painting over a prolonged period, but it also requires patience and careful planning.
How to Create an Oil Painting From Start to Finish: A Step-by-step Process
Creating an oil painting involves several steps, from sketching your initial idea to applying the final brushstrokes. Start by preparing your workspace and materials, then sketch your composition onto your primed canvas. Begin painting, usually starting with the darkest colors and working towards the lightest, while also bearing in mind the ‘fat over lean’ principle.
Take your time, allowing for necessary drying periods between layers. Finally, once you’re satisfied with your work, let the painting dry completely before varnishing or framing. Remember, oil painting is a slow process that requires patience and persistence, but the results can be truly rewarding.
Painting Realistic Still Life with Oil Paints
Still life is a popular genre in oil painting, offering a great way to practice skills like composition, color mixing, and capturing light and shadow. Start by setting up a still life arrangement with objects of varying shapes, sizes, and materials. Sketch the arrangement on your canvas, focusing on the relationships between the objects rather than details.
When painting, start with a monochrome underpainting to establish the tonal values. Then, begin adding color, starting with the darkest areas and moving to the lighter ones. Pay close attention to the way light interacts with the objects and the reflections and shadows it creates. Remember, realism comes from careful observation and accurate depiction of details.
Tips for Creating a Pleasing Composition in Oil Painting
A strong composition is key to creating an engaging oil painting. It guides the viewer’s eye through the artwork and creates a sense of balance and harmony. Some principles to consider when planning your composition include the rule of thirds, balancing elements, leading lines, and focal points. Experiment with different arrangements, angles, and perspectives in your preliminary sketches before starting
on your final painting. Using thumbnails can be a helpful way to try out different compositions quickly. Keep in mind that while these rules can guide you, they’re not set in stone. Feel free to break them if it serves your artistic vision.
Using Varnish for Protecting Your Oil Paintings
Varnishing is an essential final step in oil painting that serves to protect the finished artwork from dust, dirt, and yellowing. It also evens out the painting’s finish and can enhance the vibrancy of the colors. It’s crucial to wait until the painting is completely dry before applying varnish, which can take anywhere from six months to a year for oil paintings.
Varnishes come in different finishes, such as gloss, matte, and satin, and can be either removable (conservation) or non-removable (drying oil or alkyd). Choose the one that best suits your painting and apply it following the manufacturer’s instructions.
Getting Creative: Abstract Oil Painting Techniques
Abstract oil painting can be a great way to express your creativity without the constraints of realistic representation. This doesn’t mean that abstract painting is a free-for-all. It’s often about distilling a subject down to its essence and conveying emotion through colors, shapes, and textures.
Techniques you can use in abstract oil painting include impasto, where thick paint is applied to create texture, and sgraffito, where layers of paint are scratched to reveal lower layers. You can also experiment with non-traditional tools like palette knives, rags, or even your fingers to create unique effects.
The Importance of Plein Air Painting in Developing Your Oil Painting Skills
Plein-air painting is the practice of painting outdoors, capturing landscapes in natural light. This practice can be beneficial for oil painters as it forces you to observe the natural world closely and make quick decisions about colors and composition due to changing light conditions.
It’s also an opportunity to understand how different types of light influence colors and shadows. Essential equipment for plein air painting includes a portable easel, a palette, a set of brushes, a selection of paints, medium, and canvas or boards. Remember to respect nature and the environment while painting outdoors.
From Studio to Gallery: How to Exhibit Your Oil Paintings
Once you have created a body of work, you might consider exhibiting your oil paintings. You could start by participating in local art fairs or community exhibitions, then gradually aim for solo exhibitions or gallery representation. Make sure your paintings are properly framed and presented, and have a clear pricing structure.
Also, have an artist statement ready that explains your work and your artistic philosophy. Networking is crucial in the art world, so attend other artists’ exhibitions, participate in art-related events, and be active on social media and online art platforms. Remember, rejection is part of the process, so don’t be discouraged if you don’t succeed immediately. Keep creating and keep improving.
1. Gather Good Quality Painting Materials
You will require the following supplies to start oil painting:
- Oil paints
- Paintbrushes, preferably made of synthetic fiber or hog hair.
- Oil and thinner
- A palette for mixing paints
- Painting rags
- An easel for holding your work
Starting with a few basic colors is recommended for beginner oil painters. It allows more experimentation with color mixing, giving you a better feel for the qualities of oil paints. It is advisable, to begin with white, black, and the primary colors. You can start exploring other colors once you understand the oil painting basics.
2. Set up a Safe Space to Work
Oil paints give out a strong smell, and the solvents required for thinning them and cleaning brushes contain toxic properties. For this reason, a spot outdoors would be a favorable option for many people, but it does not mean oil painting indoors is impossible.
You have to take care by ensuring the room is well ventilated. Also, some oil paints contain harmful chemicals that find their way through the skin. To ensure safety, use nitrile or latex gloves when handling such paints.
3. Prime the Canvas
Oil paints are typically thick, and the oils seep into canvas if gesso is not applied. Gesso is a primer and failing to use it before oil painting affects your work’s look. Over time, the canvas may also start degrading.
Gesso allows finishing paint to adhere better to the canvas and create a binding layer that is better suited to oil paint. It also has properties that increase paint durability.
Some primers can be slightly colored to match the finishing paint’s color. If it is deep color finishing paint, tinging the primer reduces the number of finishing paint layers necessary for uniformity across the painted canvas. Primers also hide seams and joints to provide a better look.
A topcoat is a translucent or transparent coat of paint applied over fillers or primers. They provide proper adhesion to the undercoat, extra protection against harsh weather conditions, and the painting’s desired look (structure, gloss, color). For some primers, it is a requirement that the topcoat is used within a stated period after the primer has dried.
The time set to apply a top coat after the primer dries ranges from one day to fourteen days. The finishing paint is often applied before the primer completely dries to improve adhesion between the topcoat and the primer.
4. Sketch your Painting
Now your canvas is ready; next up, sketch a “notan” on scrap paper or a sketchbook with a black or gray pen or pencil. You can do the sketchings as small as you want; the intention is to get the design’s dark, medium, and light areas. Draw as many sketches as you can without worrying about the details until you are satisfied with the design.
Afterward, make a value drawing using a pencil or charcoal. It can be a detailed or loose sketch; what you’re looking for here is where the highlights and shadows are. In the sketch;
- Directional lighting makes drawings appear more three-dimensional and makes for good realism or impressionism. The light falling on the object, person, or landscape elements should follow one direction. The shadows should also follow the same direction and be longer when it’s early or late in the day, shorter if the lamp or sun is high.
- If you want to make an abstract, draw a loose sketch working out the areas you want specific effects like strong texture strokes or spattering. Or ignore the sketch stage and move on to the next.
- Sketch your drawing on a canvas pad, paper, or canvas board using your violet pastel pencil or charcoal. If the shape is not the same, mark up the precise parts of the canvas on the pad or board so that everything matches the planning sketches.
Take these sketches as pure outlines. For detailed realism, you can mark up mouths, eyes, or the crucial shapes on the drawing. You can also keep it simple to the main shapes and shadow shapes as long as it resembles a Paint By Numbers canvas once you complete the sketch.
Mistakes are correctable; use a damp cloth to wipe off the pastel pencil or charcoal and wait for it to dry before drawing again.
5. Layer your Oil Paints
Now you want to layer up the color and paint after mixing and preparing the oil paints. Ensure you use the “fat over lean” rule that stops oil paints from taking forever to dry and cracking when dry. It takes longer for oilier (fatter) paints to dry, so you want to apply it over leaner (thinner) paints.
How long do oil paints take to dry? Depending on the thickness, it takes three months or more, thus giving you enough time to make changes until you are satisfied with the end product. Using a palette knife, you can scrape off the parts you want to change and re-do.
Oil painting is quite straightforward. It is different from acrylics in that you work with mediums, and solvents and oil paints take longer to dry.
Dispose of all materials you use properly. Remember that oil paints contain hazardous components to the skin and body. Keep them away from pets and children’s reach.
This article takes you through how to oil paint on canvas. Whether you are a beginner artist or a professional, this information will add to your knowledge and make you a better oil painter.